Computing global invariant manifolds: Techniques and applications
Hinke M. Osinga
Global invariant manifolds play an important role in organising the behaviour of a dynamical system. Together with equilibria and periodic orbits, they form the so-called skeleton of the dynamics and offer geometric insight into how observed behaviour arises. In most cases, it is impossible to find invariant manifolds explicitly and numerical methods must be used to find accurate approximations. Developing such computational techniques is a challenge on its own and, to this date, the focus has primarily been on computing two-dimensional manifolds. Nevertheless, these computational efforts offer new insights that go far beyond a confirmation of the known theory. Furthermore, global invariant manifolds in dynamical systems theory not only explain asymptotic behaviour, but more recent developments show that they are equally useful for explaining short-term transient dynamics. This paper presents an overview of these more recent developments, in terms of novel computational methods, as well as applications that have stimulated recent advances in the field and highlighted the need for new mathematical theory.
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