Computing parametrised large intersection sets of 1D invariant manifolds: a tool for blender detection
Dana C'Julio, Bernd Krauskopf, and Hinke M. Osinga
A dynamical system given by a diffeomorphism with a three-dimensional space may have a blender, which is a hyperbolic set Λ with, say, a one-dimensional stable invariant manifold that behaves like a surface. This means that the stable manifold of any fixed or periodic point in Λ weaves back and forth as a curve in phase space such that it is dense in some projection; we refer to this as the carpet property. We present a method for computing very long pieces of such a one-dimensional manifold so efficiently and accurately that a very large number of intersection points with a specified section can reliably be identified. We demonstrate this with the example of a family of Hénon-like maps H on R3, which is the only known, explicit example of a diffeomorphism with proven existence of a blender. The code for this example is available as a Matlab script in the supplemental material. In contrast to earlier work, our method allows us to determine up to 211 intersection points of the respective one-dimensional stable manifold with a chosen planar section, and render each as individual curves when a parameter is changed. With suitable accuracy settings, we not only compute these parametrised curves for the fixed points of H over the relevant parameter interval, but we also compute the corresponding parametrised curves of the stable manifolds of a period-two orbit (with negative eigenvalues) and of a period-three orbit (with positive eigenvalues). In this way, we demonstrate that our algorithm can handle large expansion rates generated by (up to) the fourth iterate of H.
|PDF copy of the paper (28MB)|
|Matlab demo and code (1.8MB)|